No movement develops in a complete vacuum. Building upon the seventeenth and eighteenth century work of Rembrandt and William Hogarth, Édouard Manet broke new ground by defying traditional techniques of representation and by choosing subjects from the events and circumstances of his own time. Acting as a lone wolf, he unlocked a door that enabled impressionism to happen. Edgar Degas was the only impressionist who bridged the gap between traditional academic art and the more radical artistic directions developing at the time. Berthe Morisot, despite the protests of friends and family, tirelessly participated in the impressionists’ struggle for recognition. This class will explore how and why these particular artists posed the initial challenges to 400-year-old tradition in order to develop a new voice.